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CE 3401 Lecture 21-Lab 2
Horizontal Curve and Layout
The goal for the lab this week will be to calculate the horizontal curve data for the preliminary horizontal alignment of your road. After completing the calculations for your horizontal curves, the curves will be laid out on your autocad drawing.
1. Station 0+00.00 is at the west end of your road, at the intersection with County Road C..
2. Begin working on the curve nearest the west end.
3. Find the station and beaaring of the lines on your drawing by using the distance function of autocad.
4. Using your chosen degree of curvature (maximum dependent on design speed), calculate the following and put in a Text box for each curve;
R=radius
T=tangent distance
L=length of curve
PC station = PI - T
(PI is measured directly from drawing.)
PT station = PC + L
E = external distance
M = middle ordinate
LC = long chord
5. Using a spreadsheet and calculate the deflection angles and tangent chord distances to the whole stations around the curve.
6. Locate and denote the PC along the back tangent measuring from station 0+00.
7. Using either the Fillet or Circle function of autocad, draw your circular curves on your drawing. Mark stations from County Road C to US41 starting with 0+00.00 for your point on County Road C. Also denote the station of the PC and PT on the curve (use Text Boxes)
8. Repeat as often as necessary for each of your horizontal curves.
9. Hand in a memo entailing what you have done, along with an appendix of curve calculations (curve radius etc and deflection angles with chords) and 8.5x11 plot of your drawing.
Remember to use the memo format outlined for your cover sheet.
Also, your book is a good reference to use for this lab. .
We will go over how to do the AutoCAD portion in class.
HORIZONTAL CURVES
A curve is initially laid out with two straight lines or tangents. These lines are extended until they intersect and that point of intersection is called the PI. The first tangent encountered is called the back tangent and the second one is called the forward tangent.
The curve is laid out so that it joins these tangents. The points on tangents (POTs) are the points where the curves run into the tangents.
The first of these points is on the back tangent at the beginning of the curve and is called the point of curvature (PC).
The second one is at the end of the curve on the forward tangent and is called the point of tangency (PT).
In another notation the point of curvature may be written as TC, indicating that the route changes from a tangent to a curve; the point of tangency may be written as CT, indicating that the route goes from curve back to tangent.
The angle between the tangents is called the intersection angle (Ior delta).
The radius of curve is R.
T is the tangent distance and equal to the length of the back or forward tangents.
The distance from the PI to the middle point of the curve is called external distance and is denoted by E.
Finally, the chord of the arc from the PC to the PT is called the long chord (LC) and the distance from the middle of the curve to the middle of the long chord is labeled M, the middle ordinate, and L is actual length.
DEGREE OF CURVATURE AND RADIUS OF CURVATURE
The sharpness of a curve may be described by the following:
Radius of curvature - This method is often used in highway work where the radius for the curve is probably given as some multiple of 100 ft. The smaller the radius, the sharper the curve.
Degree of curvature, arc basis - the degree of curvature on the arc basis is the central angle of a circle which will subtend an arc of 100 ft. It will be noticed that a sharp curve has a large degree of a curvature and a flat curve a small degree of curvature.
DEFLECTION ANGLES
The angle between the back tangent and a line drawn from the PC to a particular point on a curve is called the deflection angle to that point. Circular curves are laid out almost entirely by using these angle. From the geometry of a circle, the angle between a tangent to a circular curve and a chord drawn from that point of tangency to some other point on the curve equals one half of the angle subtended by that chord. Thus for a 100 ft chord the deflection angle is D/2, and for a 50 ft chord is 50/100 * D/2. It will be noted that the deflection angle from the PC to each succeeding 100 ft station can be calculated by adding D/2 to the last deflection angle, or to each succeeding 50 ft station by adding D/4 to the last deflection angle.
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